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What have been historically the various interpretations given to Aristotle's

ShareLogic, PhilosophersRead another response about Logic, PhilosophersWhat have been historically the various interpretations given to Aristotle's notion of validity implicit in his syllogistic? Here is one authoritative translation of the relevant text: A syllogism is discourse in which, certain things being stated, something other than what is stated follows of necessity from their being so. I mean by the last phrase that they produce the consequence, and by this, that no further term is required from without in order to make the consequence necessary. - Aristotle, Prior Analytics I.2, 24b18–20 https://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/a/aristotle/a8pra/book2.html And here is one apt expression of what seems the prevailing interpretation today: In logic, an argument is valid if and only if it takes a form that makes it impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion nevertheless to be false. It is not required for a valid argument to have premises that are actually true, but to have premises that, if they were true, would guarantee the truth of the argument's conclusion. - Wikipedia, Validity (logic) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Validity_(logic) And here is a different formulation which seems equivalent to the one provided by Wikipedia: This corresponds to a modern notion of logical consequence: X results of necessity from Y and Z if it would be impossible for X to be false when Y and Z are true. We could therefore take this to be a general definition of [More]

Measles & the Ethics of Belief

Before the development of the vaccine, measles infections resulted in thousands of hospitalizations and hundreds of deaths in the United States each year. After the vaccine became available, the number of cases dropped dramatically. While the number of infections remains low, measles has recently gotten into the news due to an outbreak in Washington (the [More]

In Memoriam: Gary Gutting

2019.01. : View this Review Online | View Recent NDPR Reviews In Memoriam Gary Gutting 1942-2019 Funeral February 1, 2019, 3:30pm Basilica of the Sacred Heart Notre Dame, Indiana * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Publication of reviews will resume in March. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Read [More]