[Revised entry by Leah Henderson on November 22, 2022.
Changes to: Main text, Bibliography]
We generally think that the observations we make are able to justify some expectations or predictions about observations we have not yet made, as well as general claims that go beyond the observed. For example, the observation that bread of a certain appearance has thus far been nourishing seems to justify the expectation that the next similar piece of bread I eat will also be nourishing, as well as the claim that bread of this sort is generally nourishing. Such inferences from the observed to the unobserved, or to general laws, are known as…
Originally appeared on Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Read More